14 Top Mobile App Development Languages for Android & iOS Developers

Just to burst your bubble right away, there is no universal language for mobile app development. The reason is that it largely depends on what your goals are. This means you need to identify your goals first in order to choose the right app development language.

Being a mobile app developer, whether you are looking for a job, want to develop an app for a specific platform, or want to keep your options as open as possible, you will need to conduct research to find the best app development language.

There are many app development languages which makes it difficult to find the best language for building an app. Don’t worry! To make things easier for you, we’ve divided the languages for app development into categories and shared their pros and cons, so you can choose the best language for your app based on the specific needs and goals of your project.

Let’s find out!

Programming Languages for iOS App Development

These are the 6 best programming languages if you want to develop iOS apps. We have compared programming languages for mobile based on many factors that you should consider while selecting the best language.

Major FactorsSwiftObjective-CC++PythonHTML5Flutter
Developed In201019841985199120142017
Developed ByApple Inc.Tom Love & Brad CoxBjarne StroustrupGuido Van RossumW3CGoogle
  • General Purpose
  • Multi Paradigm
  • Object Oriented
  • General Purpose
  • Open Source
  • Markup Language
  • Open Source UI SDK
Active Developers2.3 million1.4 million6.3 million9 million1.3 million2 million
Current VersionSwift 5.1Objective-C 2.0C++ 20Python 3.9.1HTML5.2Flutter 1.22.5
Famous AppFacebookWhatsAppYouTubeInstagramNetflixInsight Timer

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  1. Swift – A Powerful and User-friendly Programming Language

    Swift is one of the mobile application development languages, developed by Apple Inc. and helps apps run on various platforms, such as macOS, iOS, and watchOS, tvOS. It comes with various features, such as fast coding style, the safety of data storage, and easy-to-use syntax.


    Image Source: Swift

    Moreover, Swift programming is interactive, and the syntax is very concise, which makes this language safer by design. It automatically removes unsafe code to have a highly secure coding environment. And for the best-integrated development environment, you can rely on Xcode.

    Pros and Cons of Swift Programming Language

    • Requires low maintenance
    • Fast coding style and faster execution
    • Can avoid a few bugs of Objective-C
    • Less maintenance and great reliability
    • Needs regular updates as it is new in the market
    • Quite young to build heavy apps
    • Has backward compatibility issues
  2. Objective-C – OOP Programming Language

    Objective-C is an object-oriented programming language that was first developed by Apple to support apps on its platforms. It uses syntax from C and adds Smalltalk-style messaging to provide flexible and easy solutions to programming issues.


    Image Source: Objective-C

    Being developed in 1984, it is a very mature and well-updated programming language. That’s not all. It is more stable than Swift and highly compatible with C and C++ libraries.

    Pros and Cons of Objective-C Programming Language

    • More stable and easy usage of private APIs
    • Has easy compatibility with C++ libraries
    • A lot of legacy codes support the nest coding style
    • Doesn’t support dynamic libraries as they are larger in size
    • Extended coding may be time-consuming
  3. C++

    iOS app development becomes much easier with C++ because of Objective-C. C++ is the extension of the C language. It is recommended because you have a lot of control over overusing system resources and memory.


    Image Source: C++

    It is powerful as well as flexible and makes it easy for operating systems, browsers, and game development. Its features include rich libraries, fast development, and dynamic memory allocation, making it one of the best choices for app development.

    Pros and Cons of C++ Programing Language

    • Has ready-to-use in-built libraries and compilers
    • The garbage collector doesn’t run in the background
    • You have full control over the app development process
    • Has complex syntax and small standard libraries
    • More complicated to master because it is not well-designed
    • Has a complex and dynamic memory allocation
  4. Python

    Python is easy to learn, even if you are a first-time programmer. It is an open-source programming language, making it freely usable and shareable. Also, it allows you to code programs in fewer lines compared to other languages.


    Image Source: Python

    This programming language will help you to work more quickly and integrate your systems more effectively, with low-cost maintenance. All this makes it one of the most popular server-side scripting languages.

    Pros and Cons of Python Programming Language

    • Easy to learn, use, and deploy
    • Used for analyzing and software development
    • Multi-platform and multi-system support
    • Takes much time to execute
    • Inefficient with modern mobile app development
    • Limited data access
  5. HTML5

    HTML5 is the latest evolution of HTML, and it is the most popular markup language. This helps to structure and present content on the world wide web. Not only easy to learn because of cleaner and more improved code, but it also offers well-designed forms and ensures better accessibility.


    Image Source: HTML5

    If you are planning to build location-based apps, then this can be the right choice. Its latest features like media elements, multi-platform functionality, and agile market deployment help to manage the app development process efficiently.

    Pros and Cons of HTML5 Programming Language

    • Helps to support various versions of major browsers
    • Easy interactivities without external plugins
    • Support offline access and takes less time
    • Challenging to support old browsers
    • Put various restrictions on multimedia
    • Has inconsistencies in delivery
  6. Flutter (Uses Dart Language)

    It is an open-source SDK, which uses the Dart programming language to develop iOS apps. Flutter is recommended because it comes with the full support of native features.


    Image Source: Flutter

    Moreover, it has the feature of hot reload. This means, if you update any changes in the code, it will reflect the changes within seconds after you load it. Features like less development time and fast time-to-market speed make it an ideal choice for developing iOS apps.

    Pros and Cons of Flutter

    • Takes less time to develop apps
    • Hot reload feature to update the changes within seconds
    • Can use the same UI across all the platforms
    • Best performance similar to native
    • Apps from Flutter will not be supported by a web browser
    • Apps have a larger size
    • Limited library to access

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Moving ahead, let’s check the best programming languages for Android app development.

Programming Languages for Android App Development

If you have an interest in Android app development, then this list is for you. We have shared the top 5 languages that you need to consider to create Android apps. Are you wondering about applications on the Android OS are mostly written in what programming language? We have listed down the major factors and languages which are used to develop Android applications. Let’s check the list with major factors:

Major FactorsJAVAKotlinXMLCC++
Developed In19952011199819721985
Developed ByJames GoslingJetBrainsW3CDennis Ritchie & Bell LabsBjarne Stroustrup
  • Object-Oriented
  • General Purpose
  • Markup Language
  • General Purpose
  • General Purpose
Active Developers8.2 million2.3 million6.3 million6.3 million
Current VersionJava SE 15Kotlin 1.4.21XML 1.1C 17C++ 20
Famous AppTwitterPinterestWhatsAppAdobe PhotoshopYouTube
  1. JAVA

    JAVA is the best programming language for mobile apps as it is an object oriented programming language. The advantage of using JAVA is that it has in-built open-source libraries for mobile app developers. Not only easy to handle, but it also offers the best documentation and community support.

    Moreover, abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism are some of its features, making it one of the best languages for Android app development as well as cross-platform app development.


    Image Source: JAVA

    You can also use XML with JAVA as a mode of communication. This will help you to communicate between different applications. XML helps to store and transfer data. And for the best-integrated development environment, you can rely on Android Studio.

    Pros and Cons of JAVA Programming Language

    • Comes with simple syntax
    • Highly standard for enterprise computing
    • Less chance of security breach
    • Easy to write and compile
    • Need to pay for commercial license
    • Some bugs may be found in a virtual machine
    • Doesn’t provide backup facilities
  2. Kotlin

    Kotlin allows mobile app developers to develop powerful apps. This is one of the popular programming languages which enhances code maintainability and readability that means engineers can write, read, and change code more efficiently. Pinterest, Trello, Evernote, BaseCamp 3, and Coursera are some of the most popular apps that are built using Kotlin.


    Image Source: Kotlin

    It is an alternative language to JAVA for developing apps for Android. With Kotlin, you can access all JAVA libraries and can use it for anything where Java is used today, including server, client, web, and Android development.

    In the same way, you can also use XML with Kotlin to transfer and store data. To know more about XML, check the next language in this list.

    Pros and Cons of Kotlin Programming Language

    • Easy to comply with existing Java code
    • Can be easily maintained because it offers a clear and compact codebase
    • Kotlin is more stable and consistent
    • Keeps fluctuating the compilation speed
    • Smaller developer community
    • Resources are less to learn Kotlin
  3. XML

    XML is a markup language. It makes it easy to develop Android apps because it describes data and introduces various elements. Precisely, it helps to set the layout buttons and images to define the font, color, and all the by default texts.


    Image Source: XML

    It also makes sure that the encoding documents are in a set that is easily readable by machines and humans. XML is very much like HTML and helps in storing and transferring data.

    Pros and Cons of XML Programming Language

    • Platform independent so can be used on various systems
    • Supports Unicode and allows to transmit any human-written information
    • Data stored and transferred can be changed at any moment
    • Allows validation with DTD and Schema for error-free syntax
    • Simplifies the ways to share data over different platforms
    • Doesn’t support an array
    • Syntax redundancy will cause you higher storage
    • File sizes are usually large
  4. C

    This language helps to develop Android apps and makes the whole process easier as C code can call Java code with the standard Android libraries. Java code has the ability to call native functions defined in C code.


    Image Source: C

    It increases performance, leverages direct low-level programming, and can easily utilize the libraries written in C code. When programming with C, get the benefits of headers and libraries to create activities, handle user input, and get access to many other resources.

    Pros and Cons of C Programming Language

    • You get the in-built functions
    • Has a variety of data types and operators
    • Ability to extend itself
    • Lack of exceptional handling
    • Doesn’t have a concept of OOPs
    • No runtime checking
    • Low level of abstraction
  5. C++

    C++ does not only help to build iOS apps but also Android apps. This is the reason we have mentioned it twice in our list. Android NDK toolset will allow you to have native code using C++ language.


    Image Source: C++

    C++ is recommended over JAVA because it has a smaller memory footprint and good portability. Moreover, it is a superset of C and has the ability to compile virtually all C programs. Later, you can reuse the C software according to your requirements.

    Pros and Cons of C++ Programming Language

    • Can be faster than JAVA
    • Low-level manipulation of data
    • Offers good portability and platform-independent
    • Total control over memory management
    • Harder to integrate
    • Many features are not designed well
    • Security issues

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Programming Languages for Hybrid App Development

If you want to develop hybrid apps, then you must check the following programming languages. Based on some major factors, compare each language and find the best which completely fits your requirements.

Major FactorsJavaScriptHTML & CSSLuaDart
Developed In19951993 & 199619932011
Developed ByBrandan EichW3CRoberto Ierusalimschy, Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo, & Waldemar CelesGoogle
  • Multi Paradigm
  • Hypertext Markup
  • Cascading Style Sheets
  • High Level
  • Multi Paradigm
  • Client Optimized
Active Developers12.4 million1.3 million700K2 million
Current VersionECMAScript 2020HTML5 & CSS 3Lua 5.4.1Dart 2.10.4
Famous AppCandy CrushNetflixCelestiaAlibaba
DownloadJavaScriptHTML & CSSLuaDart
  1. JavaScript

    JavaScript can easily comply with a wide array of programming languages. Also, it runs seamlessly in other environments and outside of browsers. This makes it easy to control and manage every development process.


    Image Source: JavaScript

    With the help of JavaScript, you can build effective and interactive apps. This is highly recommended because it can be used across various platforms, including iOS, Android, and Windows.

    Pros and Cons of JavaScript Programming Language

    • Can be used in various ways through Node.js
    • Doesn’t need to be compiled for browsing
    • Easy to control and manage
    • Vulnerable Enough to be exploited for malicious purpose
    • May encounter some browser-related issues
    • Difficult to predict the output of client-side scripts
  2. HTML & CSS

    HTML and CSS are two core technologies that help build hybrid apps. HTML will provide the structure, and CSS will function to the layout for different devices.

    HTML and CSS

    Image Source: HTML & CSS

    HTML is platform-independent and will help you to add images, videos, audios, and hypertext to the text. On the other hand, CSS will help you control the color of the text, font size, spacing, size of columns, background images, designs, screen size, and various effects.

    Pros and Cons of HTML & CSS Programming Language

    • Safe to use across all the platforms
    • Get the complete UI to focus on the creative side
    • Clean and stable code
    • To work with mobile app development framework, need to learn their syntax
    • Need to depend on the author of the framework
  3. Lua

    Lua is the fastest language and can be easily learned. If you want to improve the speed of the app, then Lua is the best choice. You can use Lua for all sorts of applications, from gaming apps to web applications.


    Image Source: Lua

    Lua is a lightweight and embeddable scripting language that helps secure real-time messages and analytics dashboards, making it easy to share files and a two-touch conference call.

    Pros and Cons of Lua Programming Language

    • Fastest language and takes least runtime memory
    • Helpful in error-handling
    • Provides easy integration with C and well documented
    • Has amount of code comments
    • Difficult to learn and execute for beginners
    • Has poor garbage collection capacity
  4. Dart

    Dart is a client-optimized programming language. It is a simple and highly efficient mobile app development language and helps apps run on multiple platforms. Dart is very flexible in that you can write code to run it anywhere without having any significant limitations.


    Image Source: Dart

    Dart is an open-source and garbage-collected language with C-style syntax. It can either be compiled with native code or JavaScript and equips us with Flutter, a mobile app development framework.

    Pros and Cons of Dart Programming Language

    • All the features are described in detail
    • Has high performance and run faster
    • Stable and used to build real-time apps
    • Offers DartPad to work without installation
    • Limited resources are found online
    • New and rarely used in the market
    • Has an absence of native support

This was all about the best programming languages for mobile app development. If you still have some queries in your mind, continue reading the most asked questions that we have shared next.

Frequently Asked Questions

Which programming languages should I learn for developing apps?

  • JAVA
  • Kotlin
  • C++
  • Python
  • Swift
  • SQL

Which are some of the best languages for developing apps?

  • For iOS app development – Swift and Objective-C
  • For Android app development – JAVA and Kotlin
  • For Cross-platform app development – JavaScript

Which languages are most used to develop apps?

According to Statista, this is the list of languages that are most used for developing apps.

  • JavaScript
  • HTML
  • SQL
  • Python
  • JAVA



We have discussed each language along with its pros and cons. Now, you can choose the best programming language as per your project requirements like app type, a platform to develop on, and more.

In any case, if you face difficulty while trying your hands on these programming languages or choosing the best language for your project, then get in touch with us. Share your project requirements with us and we will assist you further.

Bhaval Patel

Written by

Bhaval Patel is a Director (Operations) at Space-O Technologies. He has 20+ years of experience helping startups and enterprises with custom software solutions to drive maximum results. Under his leadership, Space-O has won the 8th GESIA annual award for being the best mobile app development company. So far, he has validated more than 300 app ideas and successfully delivered 100 custom solutions using the technologies, such as Swift, Kotlin, React Native, Flutter, PHP, RoR, IoT, AI, NFC, AR/VR, Blockchain, NFT, and more.